The: No, brain development is the result of a complex interaction between both genes and environment. Brain development commences in utero. Billions of neurons are generated. They migrate from their labor and birth place in the embryo to their final positions. Axons and dendrites grow and connections (synapses) between neurons are formed. These systems are believed to be hardwired, that is determined by genetics. Once connections are formed, activity dependent systems come into play. Whether a connection is strengthened or eliminated will be determined by the activity of this connection, that is, it will rely on the activities of the baby/child.
An example of how the environment can influence brain development: Rutter et ing. (1998) studied Romanian orphans brought to England and adopted before age two (some before 6 months). When assessed on arrival, the babies were shown to be severely early childhood impaired and malnourished. Any time tested again after several years in the adoptive environment (at age 4), the children showed great physical and developmental improvement, especially those adopted before 6 months.
Q: Therefore, can a child outsmart his/her genes?
A: Indeed, that can be done claims Richard Nisbett writer of "Intelligence and Just how to Get It: Why Schools and Cultures Count". In this interview, Nisbett explores the interaction between genes, school and cleverness: "If our genes largely determine our IQ, which in turn underlies our performance throughout existence, then what is the role of faculty? "
In this other interview, exchild prodigy Joshua Waitzkin's, American mentally stimulating games player, fighting methods competitor, and author, explains how a lot will depend on understanding learning.
Q: Are babies created with more or with less neurons and crevices than adults?
A: Infants are born with more neurons and so synapses than adults. In a research conducted in 2007, Abitz, Damgaard et al. in contrast 8 newborn human minds with the ones from 8 adult brains and showed that on average, adult neuron estimates were 41% lower than those of the newborn. What happens to these extra neurons and connections then? The answer then is synaptic pruning (or neuron pruning).
Synaptic pruning is a regulatory process that reduces the overall number of overproduced neurons by "weeding out" the weaker crevices. A weak synapse is a synapse that is not used much, which shows that experience is definitely an essential part of brain development.
Q: Is under 5 THE ONLY critical period for brain development?
A: No. Brain development is a continuum from birth to age 20 approximately. A "critical period" in development is a time, in the early stages of an organism's life, where the organism shows an excellent00 sensitivity to some stimuli in the environment. Get more information about brain development then you can always consider brain development in children.If the stimuli in the atmosphere are present, the affected person will develop in a specific way. If the stimuli are not present during the critical period, it may be difficult, or sometimes impossible, to develop some functions. For instance , if an infant does not see light during the first few months of life (at least 6 months), nerves and neurons running visual input will degenerate and eventually die.
The particular most wellknown example of critical period comes from the Critical Period Hypothesis (Lenneberg, 1967), which says that the first few years of life constitute enough time during which language develops easily. After that learning a language is more difficult and usually less successful.
Is it the case however that "everything happens before age 5?? Would age 0-5 be a critical period for all major cognitive skills? Simply no. Development is more a trajectory, a continuum. Human brain imaging studies and study show that the brain is not fully developed until age 18 to 20. Specifically, the frontal lobes of the brain the part involved in judgment, organization, planning and strategizing are the previous ones to be born to function as an adult.